Underground mining hard rock and Underground mining soft rock Mantrip used for transporting miners within an underground mine Sub-surface mining consists of digging tunnels or shafts into the earth to reach buried ore deposits. Ore, for processing, and waste rock, for disposal, are brought to the surface through the tunnels and shafts. Sub-surface mining can be classified by the type of access shafts used, the extraction method or the technique used to reach the mineral deposit. Drift mining utilizes horizontal access tunnels, slope mining uses diagonally sloping access shafts, and shaft mining utilizes vertical access shafts. Mining in hard and soft rock formations require different techniques. Other methods include shrinkage stope mining , which is mining upward, creating a sloping underground room, long wall mining , which is grinding a long ore surface underground, and room and pillar mining, which is removing ore from rooms while leaving pillars in place to support the roof of the room. Room and pillar mining often leads to retreat mining , in which supporting pillars are removed as miners retreat, allowing the room to cave in, thereby loosening more ore.

U.S. Geological Survey

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Inform students that they are going to work as a class to create a time line of life on Earth. Assign one of the following organisms to each student, or have students work with partners and assign one organism to each pair: Instruct students to use the research materials you have provided or the Internet to answer the question, “How many years ago did your organism first appear on Earth? Distribute index cards to students, and have them use markers to write on the index cards the names of their organisms and the approximate number of years ago they appeared on Earth for example, “bacteria—3.

Instruct students to include simple line drawings of their organisms on the cards.

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This species lived sometime between 7 and 6 million years ago in West-Central Africa Chad. Walking upright may have helped this species survive in diverse habitats, including forests and grasslands. The first and, so far, only fossils of Sahelanthropus are nine cranial specimens from northern Chad. A research team of scientists led by French paleontologist Michael Brunet uncovered the fossils in , including the type specimen TM Before , early humans in Africa had only been found in the Great Rift Valley in East Africa and sites in South Africa, so the discovery of Sahelanthropus fossils in West-Central Africa shows that the earliest humans were more widely distributed than previously thought.

Paleoanthropologists are constantly in the field, excavating new areas with groundbreaking technology, and continually filling in some of the gaps about our understanding of human evolution. Below are some of the still unanswered questions about Sahelanthropus tchadensis that may be answered with future discoveries: What did the body of Sahelanthropus tchadensis look like? So far paleoanthropologists have only uncovered cranial fossils of this species. What was their primary form of locomotion?

Geologic time scale

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The results highlight the importance of the sub ocean habitats for the development of early life on Earth and possibly as a refuge for life on (early) earth. Reference List 1.

The exact scientific process that led to the creation of prokaryotic life still eludes scientists today. Whether these early organisms metabolized energy through the process of photosynthesis utilizing light or by another method, such as chemosynthesis utilizing chemicals , is also unknown. The origin of life on planet Earth has long baffled the scientific community. Although many theories have been proposed, there is no consensus as to how life first originated on the Earth.

Science believes that the Earth’s early atmosphere consisted of gases such as methane, hydrogen, ammonia, and steam. These gases may have combined with electrical discharge from lightning other energy sources are also possible to produce organic compounds. Organic compounds, which include A group of 20 different kinds of small molecules that link together in long chains to form proteins.

Often referred to as the “building blocks” of proteins. Scientists acknowledge that even simple single-celled organisms are far more complex than the organic compounds that could have been formed from the pre-biotic conditions of ancient Earth. Yet, the origin of life is believed to have begun from some similar natural process and progressed through many steps over the span of millions of years, until the first singled-celled life was created.

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Early history[ edit ] In Ancient Greece , Aristotle BCE observed that fossils of seashells in rocks resembled those found on beaches — he inferred that the fossils in rocks were formed by living animals, and he reasoned that the positions of land and sea had changed over long periods of time. Leonardo da Vinci — concurred with Aristotle’s interpretation that fossils represented the remains of ancient life.

Steno argued that rock layers or strata were laid down in succession, and that each represents a “slice” of time.

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Geologic time scale

The table of geologic time spans presented here agrees with the dates and nomenclature proposed by the International Commission on Stratigraphy, and uses the standard color codes of the United States Geological Survey. Evidence from radiometric dating indicates that the Earth is about 4. The geological or deep time of Earth’s past has been organized into various units according to events which took place in each period.

Different spans of time on the time scale are usually delimited by major geological or paleontological events, such as mass extinctions. For example, the boundary between the Cretaceous period and the Paleogene period is defined by the Cretaceous—Tertiary extinction event, which marked the demise of the dinosaurs and of many marine species. Older periods which predate the reliable fossil record are defined by absolute age.

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January Fossils provide a record of the history of life. Smith is known as the Father of English Geology. Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better. Other critics, perhaps more familiar with the data, question certain aspects of the quality of the fossil record and of its dating.

These skeptics do not provide scientific evidence for their views. Current understanding of the history of life is probably close to the truth because it is based on repeated and careful testing and consideration of data. The rejection of the validity of fossils and of dating by religious fundamentalists creates a problem for them: Millions of fossils have been discovered.

They cannot deny that hundreds of millions of fossils reside in display cases and drawers around the world. Perhaps some would argue that these specimens – huge skeletons of dinosaurs, blocks from ancient shell beds containing hundreds of specimens, delicately preserved fern fronds — have been manufactured by scientists to confuse the public. This is clearly ludicrous. Some skeptics believe that all fossils are the same age. How exactly they believe that all the dinosaurs, mammoths, early humans, heavily-armored fishes, trilobites, ammonites, and the rest could all live together has never been explained.

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Earth From Space Detailed satellite images reveal the web of connections that sustain life on Earth. Produced in extensive consultation with NASA scientists, NOVA takes data from earth-observing satellites and transforms it into dazzling visual sequences, each one exposing the intricate and surprising web of forces that sustains life on earth. Viewers witness how dust blown from the Sahara fertilizes the Amazon; how a vast submarine “waterfall” off Antarctica helps drive ocean currents around the world; and how the Sun’s heating up of the southern Atlantic gives birth to a colossally powerful hurricane.

From the microscopic world of water molecules vaporizing over the ocean to the magnetic field that is bigger than Earth itself, the show reveals the astonishing beauty and complexity of our dynamic planet. Earth—you may think you know it well, but a startling new picture is emerging of a world shaped by forces more dynamic and intertwined than we ever imagined, raising possibilities that defy common sense.

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Early history[ edit ] In Ancient Greece , Aristotle BCE observed that fossils of seashells in rocks resembled those found on beaches — he inferred that the fossils in rocks were formed by living animals, and he reasoned that the positions of land and sea had changed over long periods of time. Leonardo da Vinci — concurred with Aristotle’s interpretation that fossils represented the remains of ancient life. Steno argued that rock layers or strata were laid down in succession, and that each represents a “slice” of time.

He also formulated the law of superposition, which states that any given stratum is probably older than those above it and younger than those below it. While Steno’s principles were simple, applying them proved challenging.

Nothing on earth carbon dates in the millions of years, because the scope of carbon dating only extends a few thousand years. Willard Libby invented the carbon dating technique in the early s. The amount of carbon 14 in the atmosphere today is about%.

Earth Science Study Guide Ch. Magma is underground, lava is above ground. What three factors determine the nature of a volcanic eruption? What role does each play? The nature of a volcanic eruption is determined by 1 the composition of the magma, 2 the temperature of the magma, and 3 the quantity of dissolved gases contained in the magma. The composition and temperature of the magma influence the viscosity of this material.

The viscosity, in turn, helps determine whether the eruption will be violent or quiet. The viscosity is least for very hot magmas with a relatively low silica content. The gases dissolved in the molten material provide the force to propel the liquid rock from the volcano. The quantity of gases present and the ease with which they can escape dependent upon viscosity determines the nature of the eruption. Why is a volcano fed by highly viscous magma likely to be a greater threat to life and property than a volcano supplied with very fluid magma?

Because viscous magma requires great pressure to erupt, when it finally erupts, it may be highly explosive.

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